The fact that electricity was invented
When a question such as: (Who’s invented electricity?) we need to answer this question by explaining that electricity was not invented, but was discovered. It is a form of energy that human beings took a lot of time to discover existence in nature. The real story of the discovery of electricity is a complex one, the first chapters of which began in about 600 BC, and it was not just one person who discovered electricity, but there were many great minds that contributed to enjoying today all the luxury that electricity provides us.
Contributors to the discovery of electricity
Greek philosopher Thales of Miletus
Man discovered the existence of electricity for the first time in the fifth century BC, and that was in the era of Greek civilization. As they noticed that the amber material creates an attractive force for light objects when it is in contact with the wool, and this phenomenon remained a subject of interest by researchers and scientists, until the Greek philosopher Thales of Miletus, known as one of the seven mythical sages; Which is considered the first to study electricity, and he gave clear explanations for it through the experience of friction with amber stone with the furs, and referred to the ability of the stone to attract feathers, dust, and other materials of lightweights. Experiments with static electricity.
William Gilbert and the Scholars after 1600 AD
The history of the invention of electricity is related to the scientist and physicist William Gilbert, the doctor of Queen Elizabeth I in England, so electricity was not known before, except through the information that the magnetite, or the so-called Magnetite, for magnetic properties, and that rubbing amber will lead to adhesion of some materials to it, and Gilbert was The subject of electricity has been presented in his thesis written in Latin, and the scientist has put in this book a summary of his experiences and research related to magnetism and electricity, and the scientist Gilbert, who is called (the father of modern electricity) invented the word (Electricus), which is the Latin synonym for the word (amber) to describe the forces that appear in the materials when Contact with each other, and the word (Electricity) appeared for the first time several years later when the English scientist Thomas Browne used it in his books that he wrote after studying Gilbert’s research.
Among the other scholars who contributed to the development of electricity during this period:
– The scientist Otto von Guericke: In 1660 AD, he invented the machine for generating static electricity.
– Scientist Francis Hawksby: He invented an improved electrostatic generator.
– Scientist Robert Boyle: He discovered the existence of repulsive forces side by side with the forces of attraction, and that electricity travels in a vacuum.
– Scientist Stephen Gray: He conducted many experiments through which he proved the existence of materials that conduct electricity and other non-conductive materials.
– The scientist Charles F. de Faye: distinguished between two types of electricity, which paved the way for the emergence of the concepts of positive and negative electric charges developed by Benjamin Franklin and later Ebenezer Kinnersley.
– Scientist Peter Van Muschenbroek: In 1745 A.D., he invented the Leyden jar flask, which is the flask that stores static electricity and condenses it.
– Scientist William Watson: He was able to discharge static electricity from the Leiden flask.
– Henry Cavendish: He was able to study the conductivity of materials.
– Scientist Charles de Colom: Discover the law of gravitational forces between electrified particles.
Benjamin Franklin and the Scholars Before Thomas Edison
The American scientist Benjamin Franklin came to invent the concept of positive electricity and negative electricity, based on the attraction or repulsion caused by electrically charged bodies, and thus he was able to divide the electric charges into positive and negative charges, and in 1752 AD, he conducted his famous experiment in which he used a kite, And a switch was tied to it during a thunderstorm, during which he was able to prove that there is a relationship between lightning and electricity, then more interest in the electric current appeared when the scientist Luigi Galvani noticed in 1786 that the legs of the frog were moving as a result of the discharge of static electricity, so he wrongly assumed that the leg of the frog generates electricity, However, the scientist Alessandro Volta thought otherwise, and he invented the first battery that produces a constant electric current as evidence that the electric current is chemically generated.
Among other scientists who contributed to the development of electricity during this period, taking advantage of Volta’s discoveries:
1- The English inventor and chemist Humphrey Davy: In 1802 A.D., he made the first light bulb by connecting voltages to coal electrodes, and it was called the electric arc lamp. This is due to the bright arc of light emitted between the two carbon bars.
2- The scientist George Simon Ohm: Volta paved the way for this scientist who created the relationship between voltage, current, and resistance in an electrical circuit, which is known today as Ohm’s law.
3- James Prescott Joule: Discover the electric heating law.
4- The scientist Gustav Robert Kirchhoff: Laid down laws for the collection of electric current and voltage, which are the basic laws for calculating electric circuits.
Thomas Edison and the invention of the incandescent lamp
The scientist Hans Christian Ørsted discovered in 1819 AD that a magnetic field is generated around a wire if an electric current is passed through it. The French scientist André-Marie Ampère benefited from the findings of Ørsted, and in 1873 he was able to set many electromagnetic laws, and the scientist François Arago reached The invention of the electromagnet, then came the scientist Michael Faraday, who was the first to be able to pass an electric current through wires, and his invention of electromagnetic devices paved the way for the emergence of electric generator technology, where the scientist Hippolyte Pixie relied on Faraday’s model to manufacture an electric generator that was hand-powered, and he opened this door In front of both the American scientist Thomas Edison and the British scientist Joseph Swan to invent the incandescent lamp around 1878 AD, and each of them later established a joint company to produce the first incandescent lamp and were able to light the first electric street lamps in New York in September 1882 AD.
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Edison’s discovery of the light bulb, and low-cost, high-quality lighting, laid the cornerstone of the electricity industry and built power plants. Where the Croatian scientist Nikola Tesla used alternating current (AC); To transmit electricity over a long distance, then alternating current became the common electric current throughout the world, after which George Westinghouse applied the alternating current system commercially in his company, and the hydroelectric power station (Niagara Falls) was built in 1883, during which Generating low-cost, more efficient electricity. Then the Swedish engineer Gustave de Laval in the late nineteenth century designed a steam engine that extracted thermal energy from the compressed stream and converted it into a rotating motion, and he called this discovery (the turbine engine), which contributed greatly In pushing the wheel of technology forward, British engineer Charles Parsons invented the first turbine generator in 1884AD, as it generated only 7.5 kilowatts, but with a somewhat low conversion efficiency, and he continued to develop his invention to be able to invent the first condensed turbine, and in 1900 AD, the first A 1-megawatt power plant, steam turbines continue to generate most of the electricity produced worldwide.