Definition of states
The state is defined as an organization and a political entity, and it is one of the human links between different societies and aims to establish order, security, and application of laws within a geographical area on the ground, and it also refers to a group of entities that may be linked to a larger entity in the form of a union.
Definition of federalism and confederation
It is a method of political organization that consists of several countries or entities within a system and a more comprehensive entity in a manner that allows every single entity to maintain its political integrity, and federal systems adopt the development and implementation of basic policies, and through negotiation in a specific form that allows all members to make decisions, which is a system that adopts On the distribution of centers of power and decision to protect the freedoms of individuals and societies.
The Confederation is defined as associations composed of a group of independent states to achieve some common goals. These associations lack effective executive authority and long-term central governments, and member states maintain separate diplomatic representation as well as separate military institutions.
Each type of federation has special characteristics that are a major reason for its continuity, and the following are the advantages of both types:
Advantages of Federalism
Federalism is characterized by the following:
- Promotes a sense of loneliness and bonding.
- Reduces the presence of bureaucracy.
- It provides more stability from a political perspective.
- It provides a more democratic model where states can enact laws and partial rule.
- It provides a more social model.
Features of the Confederation
Confederation is characterized by the following:
- Equality between entities or nations.
- Decentralization of authority.
- Each entity retains its full sovereignty.
The survival and continuity of the union are not measured only by the advantages, but also by the defects, which may be the cause of its collapse, and these are some of the disadvantages of both:
Defects of federalism
- Formation of class gaps between the population on economic grounds.
- Intertwining and lack of clarity in the functions of government institutions, departments, and agencies.
- The possibility of using state authorities as a means of opposition or pressure on the central government.
Defects of the Confederacy
- Weakness of the unified central government’s role in decision-making.
- Economic weakness due to the retreat of the central power’s role in imposing taxes and enacting economic laws.
- The possibility of conflict between member states.
- Poor continuity potential.
- Examples of Federalism
Throughout history, several federations have arisen, and most of them still exist, such as:
- United States of America.
Examples of confederacy
In contrast to the federation, most confederations arose and collapsed or changed to become federated, such as:
- European Union.
- North Atlantic Treaty – NATO -.
- The United States until 1789.
- German Confederation established by the Congress of Vienna in 1815.