History of cartography
The history of cartography goes back to before the advent of writing and notation, as many prehistoric cave paintings were recorded as ancient maps, and the artifacts were preserved as a guide to the locations of cities, countries, and the sites of lost treasures in the ancient world, such as The fresco dates back to the seventh millennium BC; It is considered one of the oldest maps in the world, and it was believed to represent the location of the city of Kubikli Tepe in ancient Anatolia.
The sixth century BC was the beginning of the development of the shape of maps, as both the Romans and the Greeks contributed to this development, so Anaximander documented the first map in the world, and Ptolemy drew up a blueprint for its drawing, and by the eighth-century Arab scholars translated the works of the Greeks in cartography, and in 1154 AD the Arab scientist put Muhammad Al-Idrisi is an atlas containing information about the world obtained from Arab merchants.
The first to draw a map of the world
The Babylonians were the first to draw maps, and most of them were drawn on clay tablets, and it is believed that they were drawn with accurate scanning techniques. These maps illustrated the topographical features of the land such as hills and valleys. The Babylonian map is the oldest map of the world, and it is unique. Because it represented the earth symbolically dating back to 600 BC.
– The Greeks
The Greeks or Greeks drew maps of the world, as their maps were among the first paper maps that were used in navigation, and in depicting certain areas of the earth, and Anaximander was one of the first ancient Greeks who drew maps of the world, and there are others who drew maps: Hecatius, Herodotus, and Eratosthenes And Ptolemy, and the maps they drew were based on mathematical observations and calculations, and the Greek maps were important for cartography. Because it shows Greece as the center of the world surrounded by the ocean, and it appeared in the maps that were drawn early that the world is divided into two continents: Asia and Europe, and these ideas came from the works of Homer in addition to other Greek writers, and many philosophers considered that the Earth is spherical.
Shape, and this affected cartography, as Ptolemy drew maps using a coordinate system similar to longitude and latitude. To accurately represent the areas of the Earth, and this has become the basis for cartography at the present time, which was an early example of modern cartography.
The ancient civilizations that appeared in India provided a role in the field of ancient cartography, as astronomers and cartographers contributed to mapping the stars and astronomical constellations, based on ancient cartographic systems.
The Chinese drew maps of the world on wooden planks and on silk, as their maps date back to the fourth century BC, and their maps are among the oldest economic maps in the world, and their drawing in China continued during the various ruling dynasties. Coordinates, and in the year 801, the Tang Dynasty drew a map of the Chinese and Berber peoples, showing China as a center of Central Asia. Its size was 30 feet, and it used the coordinate system with an accurate scale.
It showed major landmarks, such as roads, mountains, and the borders of different political regions. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Chinese maps developed showing areas that were still being explored, and by the middle of the twentieth century, they had developed an institute of geography that was responsible for mapping. Fieldwork in mapping that focuses on physical and economic geography.
In the past, maps were drawn in a T-shape. This is because it was showing only the three continents; Asia, Europe, and Africa, but the most accurate representation of geography appeared in the fourteenth century when maps of sailors that were used for navigation were compiled, and at the present time satellites are used to draw any map or any graphic representation, where the conversion and translation of photographic data into maps are subject to the principles of Photogrammetry, which produces maps with a high degree of resolution.
In the late twentieth century, the development of satellite photography led to the creation of Google Earth and other databases available on the Internet, and photography was used through it to create detailed maps of the properties of the moon and planets in our solar system and its satellites.
“What Is Cartography?”, Www.worldatlas.com,
Amanda Briney, “The History of Cartography,” www.thoughtco.com,